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The New Zealand Journal, Saturday, February 22 (1840)

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Proceedings for the Colonization of New Zealand in 1839.

The proceedings of the New Zealand Company for the year 1839, or rather for eight months thereof, constitute a somewhat remarkable history. It was not until late in the spring of that year that the Company commenced its operations; yet it is probable that by this time the first colony, which has been described as "a community complete in all its parts," is busy in establishing itself in the future capital of a future empire. A more remark-able instance of vigorous action, the whole history of British colonization does not furnish. Human energy has seldom effected so much in so short a space of time, and there is no doubt that a very few years will witness the growing up of a nation in British New Zealand.
Most of our readers are doubtless aware of the existence of the New Zealand Association of 1837. It consisted of two classes of persons—first, heads of families, who had determined to establish themselves in the proposed colony; and, secondly, public men, who, on public grounds alone, were willing to undertake the responsible task of carrying the measure into operation.*
The sole aim of this Association was to induce the Legislature to apply to New Zealand the peculiar system of colonization which has proved so eminently successful in South Australia, and to make provision for guarding the natives from the evils to which they have been exposed by their intercourse with a lawless European population.
This philanthropic body of men entered into communication with Government on the subject; and, at first, there seemed to be some degree of willingness to promote the Association's views; but at length a strange objection was raised, namely, that the Association was not a company trading for profit. A charter was offered on condition of its becoming such; but with this condition tbe Association was not able to comply, having expressly excluded all purposes of private profit from its object.
Having thus tailed in its negociations with the Government, the Association applied to the Legislature. A Bill was introduced to"Establish a Provisional Government of British Settlements in the Islands of New Zealand;"but, as Ministers opposed the Bill, it was of course lost.
The Association, having thus failed in its object, was virtually dissolved; but some of its members determined to attempt the formation of a Joint Stock Company, so as to obviate the objection of Government. This plan was attended with complete success. A company with an ample capital was established, and, early in the spring of last year, it had become possessed, by purchase, of an extensive territory in the neighbourhood of the harbours of Hoki-anga and Kaipara, in the northern island.
Before the Company made its plan of operations public, it had purchased the Tory, a fine vessel of 400 tons, having the reputation of being a fast sailer. This vessel was completely equipped, and made ready for sea, when, on the 2d of May, the Company deemed itself in a situation to announce its plan of operations to the public. The following extracts from the prospectus of the New Zealand Company, will sufficiently explain its objects:—
"The purchase and improvement of waste lands in New Zealand has been already carried on to a great extent, and with much advantage, by missionaries and others, who have settled in the country, as well as by persons residing in the adjacent Australian Colonies; and such an operation upon an enlarged scale is the proposed object of the New Zealand Company.
"The attention and business of the Company will be confined to the purchase of tracts of land,—the promotion of emigration to those tracts directly from the United Kingdom,—the laying out of settlements and towns in the most favourable situations,—and the gradual re-sale of such lands according to the value bestowed upon them by emigration and settlement. It is also proposed that to facilitate the transmission of capital between England and New Zealand, the Company shall act as agents, for that purpose only.
"Such an undertaking affords peculiar advantages to the employers of a large combined capital, and is further suitable to a Company, inasmuch as it can neither impede individual enterprise, nor is liable to the competition of individuals, and is capable of being managed at little expense for agency, and upon a system of fixed routine.
"Very extensive tracts of most fertile land, in situation highly favourable both for agricultural and commercial settlements, have been already purchased and secured for the purposes of this Company; and an expedition has also been fitted out and despatched for surveying the coasts of New Zealand, making purchases of land in the most eligible spots, and preparing for the arrival of a large body of settlers, whom it is proposed to establish on the Company's lands during the present year."
The Tory sailed from Gravesend on the 5th of May, and from Plymouth on the 12th. The Plymouth correspondent of a London newspaper described the ship, her equipment, and the object of the expedition at length. The following short extract, however, is all that our purpose requires:—
"The Tory carries eight guns, and is equipped in a very superior style. She carries only specie, and such articles of merchandise as are suitable for barter with the natives for land. The expedition is under the orders of Colonel Wakefield, a very distinguished officer; and the ship is commanded by Mr. Chaffers, R.N., a skilful nautical surveyor, who was master of his Majesty's ship Beagle, in Captain Fitzroy's surveying expedition in the South Seas. The Tory carries a surgeon, another gentleman devoted to medical statistics, a naturalist (Dr. Dieffen-bach, of Berlin), a draftsman (Mr. Heaphy), a few young gentlemen as volunteers, and an interpreter, Naiti, a New Zealand chieftain, who has resided in England for two years, and has acquired the English language and habits. It is understood that this expedition is a preliminary one, for the purpose of selecting the site of a town, and acquiring correct and scientific information in regard to the country. The Tory is ordered to proceed to the Company's territory on the west coast of the Northern Island, which embraces the harbours of Kaipara and Hoki-anga, and also to Cook's Strait; where it is probable a settlement will also be formed in the neighbourhood either of Cloudy Bay or Port Nicholson."
In the instruction given to Colonel Wakefield, the objects of the Company were explicitly stated under three heads.—1st. The purchase of lands for the Company. 2d. The acquisition of general information, as to the country; and 3dly. Preparations for the formation of settlements under the auspices of the Company.
With regard to the first object, it will be seen by the following extract from the instructions in which the Company's views are explicitly stated, that there is a strong leaning towards Cook Strait, as being part of the great highway between the Australian colonies and Great Britain:—
"You should endeavour to make an extensive purchase on the shores of that habour, which, all things considered, shall appear to offer the greatest facilities as a general trading depot and port of export and import for all parts of the islands—as a centre of commerce for collecting and exporting the produce of the islands, and for the reception and distribution of foreign goods. In making this selection, you will not forget that Cook's Strait forms part of the shortest route from the Australian Colonies to England, and that the best harbour in that channel must inevitably become the most frequented port of colonized New Zealand. A mere harbour, however, whether there or elsewhere, might be of but little value. There is not in the world, perhaps, a safer or more commodious harbour than Port Hardy in D'Urville's Island; but the smallness of the island renders its harbour of less importance than several others on the shores of Cook's Strait. That harbour in Cook's Strait is the most valuable, which combines, with ample security and convenience as a resort for ships, the nearest vicinity to, or the best natural means of communication with, the greatest extent of fertile territory. So far as we are at present informed, Port Nicholson appears superior to any other. As to the relative advantages, however, of the different harbours of Cook's Strait, you will probably be able to obtain useful information from captains of whaling-ships and trading vessels, or from permanent
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English settlers in Queen Charlotte's Sound or Cloudy Bay; and with this view, as well as for the purpose of comparison on your own observation, we suggest that you should visit one or both of those harbours Before you proceed to Port Nicholson. You are at liberty to engage, either at those harbours or elsewhere, the services of any Englishmen or natives, whom you may wish to accompany you in your visits to other harbours.
"It is far from being intended that your purchases of land, on behalf of the Company, should be confined to that harbour which you may con-eider superior to all the others. While you will endeavour to acquire as much land as possible in that spot or neighbourhood, it is also desirable that you should effect purchases in any part of Cook's Strait, which shall appear highly eligible for commercial settlements, or for agricultural purposes within easy reach of a good harbour. And, in particular, we must express our anxiety that you should obtain land around one good harbour, at least, on each side of Cook's Strait."
There is a remarkable feature in these instructions, which must not be overlooked. Hitherto the history of colonization has been a continuous record of injustice towards the aboriginal races. Civilization having been found difficult, extermination has been openly practised. Even recently in Van Diemen's Land, a small body of the aborigines were hemmed in, and shot down in cold blood, by a few Europeans; and when the Government took some steps to bring the monsters who perpetrated it to justice, the press raised an outcry against punishing men for shooting "monkeys;" and an intimation was held out, that if this course were persevered in, it would be necessary to find some more secure mode of getting rid of the "vermin," and the mode recommended was to dose wheaten bread, or cakes, of which the aborigines are very fond, with arsenic! The views and intentions of the New Zealand Company are diametrically opposite to such "ancient precedents," as the following extract will testify:—
"In one respect, you will not fail to establish a very important difference between the purchases of the Company and those which hare hitherto been made by every other class of buyers.
* * *
"It may be doubted, whether the native owners have ever been entirely aware of the consequences that would result from such cessions as have already been made to a great extent of the whole of the lands of a tribe. Justice demands, not merely that these consequences should be as far as possible explained to them, but that the superior intelligence of the buyers should also be exerted to guard them against the evils which, after all, they may not be capable of anticipating. The danger to which they are exposed, and which they cannot well foresee, is that of finding themselves entirely without landed property, and therefore without consideration, in the midst of a society where, through immigration and settlement, land has become a valuable property. Absolutely they would suffer little or nothing from having parted with land which they do not use, and cannot exchange; but relatively they would suffer a great deal, inasmuch as their social position would be very inferior to that of the race who had settled amongst them, and given value to their now worthless territory. If the advantage of the natives alone were consulted, it would be better perhaps that they should remain for ever the savages that they are. This consideration appears never to have occurred to any of those who have hitherto purchased lands from the natives of New Zealand. It was first suggested by the New Zealand Association of 1837; and it has great weight with the present Company. In accordance with a plan which the Association of 1837 was desirous that a legislative enactment should extend to every purchase of land from the natives, as well past as future, you will take care to mention in every booka-booka, or contract for land, that a proportion of the territory ceded, equal to one-tenth of the whole, will be reserved by the Company, and held in trust by them for the future benefit of the chief families of the tribe.
"A perfect example of this mode of proceeding will occur soon after your departure from England. We intend to sell in England, to persons intending to settle in New Zealand, and others, a certain number of orders for equal quantities of land (say 100 acres each). * * * * And one-tenth of these land-orders will be reserved, by the Company, for the chief families of the tribe by whom the land was originally sold; in the same way precisely as if the lots had been purchased on behalf of the natives. The priority of choice for the native-allotments being determined by lot, as in the case of actual purchasers; the selections will be made by an officer of the Company, expressly charged with that duty, and made publicly responsible for its performance. Wherever a settlement is formed, therefore, the chief native families of the tribe will have every motive for embracing a civilized mode of life. Instead of a barren possession, with which they have parted, they will have property in land, intermixed with the property of civilized and industrious settlers, and made really valuable by that circumstance; and they will thus possess the means, and an essential means, of preserving, in the midst of a civilized community, the same degree of relative consideration and superiority as they now enjoy in their own tribe."
As to the second head of the instructions, namely, the acquisition of general information, but little need be said. The Company tells Colonel Wakefield—
"It is impossible that you should furnish the Company with too much information, or with information of too varied a character. We shall be anxious to know all that yon can possibly learn upon every subject of inquiry. The subjects of inquiry comprise everything about which it is possible to inquire. No matter should be deemed unworthy of examination,—no particulars, however minute, will be unacceptable."
From the third division of the instructions, we make the following extract:—
"Supposing you to have selected from any purchases that you may make in Cook's Strait, or the neighbourhood of Kaipara, or in the district of the Company's lands at Kaipara, that spot which you shall deem the fittest for a first settlement,—that spot which shall present the most satisfactory combination of facility of access, security for shipping, fertile soil, water communication with districts abounding in flax and timber, and falls of water for the purpose of mills—and where the native inhabitants shall evince the greatest desire to receive English settlers, and appear most anxious to obtain employment for wages—there you will make all such preparations for the arrival of a body of settlers as the means at your disposal will allow. Amongst these it occurs to us that the natives should be employed at liberal wages, in felling the best kinds of timber, taking the logs to the place which you may have marked out for the site of a town, and also in collecting and preparing flax and spars as a return freight for vessels which may convey settlers to the place. You should also make the natives thoroughly aware of the nature and extent of the intended settlement, so that they may not be surprised at the subsequent arrival of a number of large ships. And at this spot, when you quit it, you will of course leave such persons as you may be able to spare, and shall be willing to remain, for the purpose of assuring the natives of your return, and of pursuing the labours of preparation. On quitting this spot, you will proceed directly to Port Hardy, in D'Urville's Island, where you will remain until some of the Company's vessels shall arrive from England. By the first and subsequent vessels you will receive further instructions. It is of essential consequence that you should, if possible, reach Port Hardy by the 10th of January next, or, if that should not be possible, that you find means of transmitting to the Company's vessels, that will be directed to touch there by that time, a full account of the spot on which you may have determined as the site of the first settlement."
In accordance with the plan thus disclosed, the company on the 1st of June offered for sale a limited portion of the lands, to be comprised within the first settlement to be founded in New Zealand.
It was arranged that the first town should consist of eleven hundred acres, besides public squares, boulevards, streets, and public gardens. The selected country lands comprised one hundred and ten thousand acres.
These lands were divided into eleven hundred sections, each section comprising one town acre, and one hundred country acres. In accordance with the Company's determination to do justice to the aborigines, one hundred and ten sections were reserved for the purpose of being distributed among the chief families of the tribe, from which the lands were originally purchased. The remainder being nine hundred and ninety sections, of one hundred and one acres each, were offered for sale at 1l per acre, or 101l per section.
On paying down the sum of 101l the purchaser received an order on the Company's local officer, entitling the holder, or his agent, to select one town acre and one country section, according to a priority of choice, which was afterwards determined by lot at the Company's office, an officer of the Company having drawn for the one hundred and ten sections reserved for the native chiefs.
The quantity thus in the first instance put up was taken in a very short time. The sum realized and the mode of applying it are thus explained in the conditions published by the Company previous to the distribution:—
"Of the 99,990l to be paid to the Company by purchasers, 25 per cent. only, or 24,997l 10s will be reserved to meet the expenses of the Company. The remainder, being 75 per cent., or 74,992l 10s, will be laid out by the Company for the exclusive benefit of the purchasers, in giving value to the land sold, by defraying the cost of emigration to this first and principal settlement.
"Purchasers of land-orders intending to emigrate with the first Colony, (which it is proposed shall depart by the middle of August next,) will be entitled to claim from the Company, out of the 74,992l 10s set apart for emigration, an expenditure for their own passage, and that of their families and servants, equal to 75 per cent. of their purchase-money, according to regulations framed by the Company with a view to confining the free passage to actual Colonists. But unless this claim be made in London by written application to the Secretary, delivered at the office of the Company, on or before a day of which public notice will be given, it will be considered as waived.
"The remainder of the 74,992l 10s set apart for emigration, will be laid out by the Company in providing a free passage for young persons of the labouring class, and as far as possible of the two sexes, in equal proportions."
There can be no doubt that this extraordinary eagerness to take up the lands of the first colony of New Zealand arose from the success of the first application of the principles here recognized to the colonization of South Australia. They were now no longer untried speculations. Their soundness was no longer to be proved by reasoning. There was no longer room for controversy. They had been for two years in active and successful operation. The "practical men" had said they are good, and objection had been thereby silenced. When the principles were new it was found necessary to anticipate the realization of the land fund by authorising the borrowing of a sum of money. The South Australian Act also forbade the Commissioners to commence operations until they had disposed of land to the amount of 35,000l. They did borrow 30,000l, and without much difficulty sold the required amount, and they then commenced their operations with energy, which has resulted in the most complete success.
Now let us mark the superior facilities which New Zealand has enjoyed, owing, as we have hinted, to the principles being no longer new and untried. Instead of a loan of 30,000l the Company commenced with a subscribed capital of 100,000l, and, in place of a land fund amounting to 35,000l the New Zealand Company had a fund of 99,990l.
Whilst these proceedings were going on, some of the leading
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colonists formed themselves into a committee,* representing the first colony of New Zealand. The object of the Society was thus explained in their circular:—
"Under the above designation a Society has been formed, in connexion with the New Zealand Land Company, and consisting exclusively of heads of families and others, intending to settle permanently in New Zealand, on lands purchased from the Company.
"The object of this Society is to promote co-operation, in the numerous measures of preparation requisite for establishing a prosperous settlement.
"The Society already numbers a considerable body of gentlemen, who have determined to emigrate with their families and property Others, who may entertain similar views, are invited to join them. Qualification of a member of the Society, the purchase of one hundred acres of land; of a member of the committee, five hundred acres; including, in both cases, part of the first town, The greater part of the purchase-money to be expended by the Company on the emigration of the purchasers, their families, and servants. Members admitted by ballot only.
"The colony will depart in a body during August next, so as to reach their destination about midsummer (in the southern hemisphere), when the site of the first town will have been determined and prepared for their reception, by a preliminary expedition now on its way to New Zealand."
Immediately after the realisation of the land fund, and the determination of the order of choice, which took place on the 29th of July, the Directors made arrangements for the despatch of the emigrants who were to form the first Colony.
The Directors had previously selected a thoroughly efficient surveying staff, consisting of a Surveyor-General, Captain Smith of the Royal Artillery, three assistant Surveyors, and twenty-two men. This corps, accompanied by a Land-Commissioner instructed to make further purchases of land, left Gravesend on the 1st of August in the Cuba, a fast-sailing barque of 270 tons. The instructions to Captain Smith relative to the laying-out of the first town are as follows:—
"Your surveying operations should at first be entirely confined to the site of the town.
"In laying out the plan of the town, you must as closely as possible adhere to the conditions on which the land-orders have been sold, as expressed by the enclosed copy of the terms of purchase—providing, at all events, that every holder of a land-order obtains one full acre of land within the town.
"The Directors wish that, in forming the plan of the town, you should make ample reserves for all public purposes, such as a cemetery, a market-place, wharfage, and probable public buildings, a botanical garden, a park, and extensive boulevards. It is, indeed, desirable that the whole outside of the town, inland, should be separated from the country sections by a broad belt of land, which you will declare that the Company intends to be public property, on condition that no buildings be ever erected upon it.
"The form of the town must necessarily be left to your own judgment and taste. Upon this subject the Directors will only remark, that you have to provide for the future rather than the present, and that they wish the public convenience to be consulted, and the beautiful appearance of the future city to be secured, so far as these objects can be accomplished by the original plan—rather than the immediate profit of the Company." It is of essential consequence that the town lands should be made ready for allotment as soon as possibly.
"You will consult with Colonel Wakefield as to the day when the allotment shall take place. It should not take place, however, until a reasonable time shall have been allowed after the plan is finished, for the settlers to compare the map with the ground. Public notice of the day of allotment should be given; and the Directors desire me to impress on you that everything like concealment, or even the appearance of it, should be carefully avoided in all the proceedings of your department. The first ships with settlers will convey to you instructions in duplicate, as to the mode in which the choice of sections is to take place, according to the priority determined by lot.
"As soon as the survey and plan of the town are completed, you will proceed to the survey of country sections.
"You will observe by the 'terms of purchase,' that the Company undertakes that the eleven hundred country sections shall consist of the most valuable land at the disposal of the Directors in the first settlement.
"The Directors trust, at all events, that you will adopt that mode of proceeding by which the holders of the preliminary land-orders will most surely obtain the most valuable land in the first settlement, and by which the priority of choice determined by lot will be most strictly observed.
"In case any order or orders should not be presented to you at the time when the opportunity for choosing occurs, it will be your business to choose for the absent holder. The Directors feel assured that they need not impress on you the necessity of being careful to select, in such cases, the very best land then open to choice. This last instruction applies to the town as well as the country acres. With respect to the town acres, however, it seems indispensable that the whole should be surveyed and mapped before any choice is allowed, and that the allotment of the whole should take place at one time.
"It will be your duty to choose the reserved sections according to the priority of choice which has heen determined by lot."
The month of August and part of September were occupied in active preparations for the departure of the first colony—fire ships, namely, the Adelaide, the Aurora, the Oriental, the Duke of Roxburg, and the Bengal Merchant having been chartered to convey the colony to its destination,
"On Monday, the 9th of September, "says the Author of Information relative to New Zealand, which we reviewed in our last," the Colonists entertained the Directors at a farewell dinner at the Thatched House Tavern, and on Saturday, the 14th, the Directors proceeded to Gravesend in the Mercury steam vessel, accompanied by a large party of friends interested in the infant Colony, for the final inspection of the ships. On this occasion articles of agreement were signed by the emigrants, engaging to observe certain rules after landing, with a view to the public safety, until provision should be made for this object by the Queen's Government. Parting entertainments were afterwards given by the Directors, both to the labouring emigrants in every ship and to the settlers assembled on board the Mercury, and the scenes of the day were altogether such as cannot fail to be memorable in the future annals of the Colony."
The Company afterwards found it necessary to charter the Glen-bervie for the purpose of conveying goods, for which room could not be found in the first ships. The Bolton was also taken up to convey passengers who had been disappointed in procuring passages in the early ships, besides which, the Coromandel was laid in for New Zealand, on private speculation.
The following table, extracted from the work, to which we are indebted for nearly every fact stated in this article, exhibits the total emigration of the year 1839:—
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In addition to the above, we have been favoured by the officers of the emigration department of the Company with the following table, exhibiting the trades, occupations, &c., of the heads of families and others, who formed the first colony. Like the above table, it may be relied on as authentic:—
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Summary of the Trades or Occupation of the Emigrants to whom a free passage has been granted by the New Zealand Company in the Ships Cuba, Oriental, Adelaide, Aurora, Duke of Roxburgh, Bengal Merchant. Bolton, and Coromandel.

The capital taken out by the settlers who formed the first colony, has been estimated at about 100,0000l; our own private impression is that it exceeds that amount. At all events, that estimate altogether excludes the capital which may be considered at the
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disposal of the colony, the instant there is a demand for it by means of the several mercantile connections and agencies which have been formed between persons now about establishing themselves in New Zealand, and their mercantile correspondents here.
Every description of implements useful in a new settlement has been conveyed to the colony by the several settlers. Mill machinery, both for sawing and grinding, steam-engines, agricultural implements, the frames of houses, mechanics' tools, and goods of every description, have been taken out, and it is difficult to conceive that the colonists will feel a serious want, without having at hand the means of satisfying it.
Nor has the moral and intellectual welfare of the people been unattended to. Before the departure of the first colony, a literary and scientific institution was established, and connected with it a public library was formed, the Archbishop of Dublin, the Rev. Dr. Hinds, and several other friends of the colony being among the donors. Arrangements were also made for the immediate opening of an infant school, to which the children of natives, as well as of Europeans, are to be admitted without distinction. This is beginning the work of civilization in a rational and proper manner It is doubtful whether the prejudices and habits of adults can be materially changed, but by operating on the children a sure foundation for moral improvement is laid.
In addition to these measures, the first number of a newspaper entitled the New Zealand Gazette, was published here, with the intention of publishing the second number as soon after the arrival of the first colony as possible. For this purpose presses, types, and all things needful, were taken out, and it will only be necessary to put up the house destined to become the first printing office—a matter not much more difficult than the putting up of a bed—in order to commence operations.
The religious wants of the settlers have also been duly cared for:—
"By a resolution of the directors, a free cabin passage is offered to religious ministers of every denomination, provided the grounds of application in each case are satisfactory to the Board. Accordingly a clergyman of the Church of England (Rev. J. F. Churton,) has proceeded in the Bolton, with an endowment from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, to which the colonists have subscribed a considerable sum in addition; and the Bengal Merchant has conveyed from Glasgow a minister of the Kirk of Scotland, (Rev. A. Macfarlane.) with a liberal endowment from that church. The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge has evinced its itnerest in the moral welfare of the emigrants by a large donation of books placed at the disposal of the Rev. Mr. Churton."*
By an arrangement effected by the Directors with a highly respectable banking establishment, the Union Bank of Australia, the first colony will also have the benefit of a branch of that establishment at the very offset. A colonial currency will be thus at once brought into circulation, and the pecuniary transactions of the colony will be effected with security and ease. The Union Bank issues bills on Sydney, at 30 days sight, at a charge of 2 per cent. These bills are made redeemable in New Zealand, in the notes of the bank, with a return of 2 per cent., thus in fact enabling funds to be transmitted to New Zealand free from ultimate charge.
For the length to which this account has run, we do not deem it necessary to offer our readers any apology. We have abridged our extracts from the several documents to which we have re-ferred as much as possible. They will, however, be found at length in Mr. Ward's instructive and useful work to which we have already with so much satisfaction referred. From the first expedition, we are now in almost hourly expectation of receiving intelligence. The first Colony must be now about arriving, and the surveys probably commenced in December.
In this country sales of land have been going on, and the Company is maturing its plans for conducting emigration on an extensive scale in the approaching spring. Thus, then, there is before us the cheering prospect of seeing in a few years, a large, and what is far more important, a moral and happy community, established in a country where very recently all was wild and desert.

*

The acting committee of the Association consisted entirely of the latter class of members, whose names were as follows:—
The Hon. Francis Baring, M.P. (Chairman.)
Rt. Hon. Earl of Durham. Philip Howard, Esq., M.P.
Rt. Hon. Lord Petre. William Hutt, Esq., M.P.
Hon. W. B. Baring, M.P. T. Mackenzie, Esq., M.P.
W. F. Campbell, Esq. M.P. Sir W. Molesworth, Bt. M.P.
Charles Enderby, Esq. Sir George Sinclair, Bt. M.P.
Robert Ferguson, Esq., M.P. Capt. Sir W. Symonds, R.N.
Rev. Samuel Hinds, D.D. H. George Ward, Esq. M.P.
Benjamin Hawes, Esq., M.P. W. Wolryche Whitmore. Esq.

The character of the soil, and beautiful scenery of the harbour and river of Hoki-anga is described in our extracts from the tracts of Mr. Johnson and Mr. Campbell, noticed in a subsequent part of this number.

The Company, for a time, used the name of"Land Company,"to distinguish it from the Company of 1828, but that body being now merged in the present Company, its name is now the"New Zealand Company."

*

The following gentlemen constituted the committee:—
George Samuel Evans, D.C.L., Chairman. Edward Betts Hopper, Esq.
George Duppa, Esq.
Hon. Henry Petre. Henry St. Hill, Esq.
Captain Daniell. George Hunter, Esq.
Dudley Sinclair, Esq. H. Moreing, Esq., F.A.S.
Francìs Molesworth, Esq. D. Biddiford, Esq.
Samuel Revans, Esq., Sec.

*

Ward's Information, &c., page 137.

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